India Italy Relations

India and Italy are ancient civilizations but young states (Italy having been reunified only in 1861). These two ancient civilizations have known, interacted and traded with each other for over 2000 years. Modern day contacts between the two nations were formed through exchanges between the intellectuals from both sides. Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore visited Italy in1926, on invitation of Carlo Formichi, a Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Rome. Mahatma Gandhi visited Rome in 1931 on his way back to India from the Round Table Conference in London. Leaders of the Indian freedom struggle read the works of the Italian revolutionary Mazzini of early 19th century, who worked for a Democratic Republic of Italy. Indian troops, serving with the British Indian Army, were active in Italy during the World War II.

India Italy Political Relations

Political relations between India and Italy were established in 1947. The two countries enjoy a cordial relationship. There has been a regular exchange of visits at political and official levels between both countries. From the Indian side, at the level of Head of State/Government, the visit (s) date back to 1953 & 1955 when Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru visited Italy followed by Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi in November 1981; President of India Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma in October 1996; Prime Minister Shri H.D. Deve Gowda in November 1996; Prime Minister Shri I.K. Gujral in September 1997; Prime Minister Shri A.B. Vajpayee in June 2000; and Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in July 2009.

From the Italian side, the first visit at the level of Head of State/Government took place in 1988 when Prime Minister Mr. Giovanni Goria visited India. This was followed by President Dr. Oscar Luigi Scalfaro in Feb 1995; Prime Minister Prof. Romano Prodi in Jan 1998; President Mr. Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in Feb 2005; and Prime Minister Mr. Romano Prodi in Feb 2007;

Both countries regularly hold an institutionalized Senior Officials Dialogue (Foreign Office Consultations). An Italy-India Parliamentary Friendship Association was established in the IPU Italy Chapter in 2004.

India Italy Bilateral trade

Italy is among India's top 5 trading partners in the EU and the 12th largest investor in India. The balance of trade has been in India’s favor since the early eighties. The bilateral trade witnessed a strong growth till 2007, before the world-wide recession of 2008 led to a marked slowdown in Italian economy, as a result of which the bilateral trade registered a negative annual growth rate of 13% in 2009 amounting to € 5.65 billion. This contrasts strikingly with the cumulative growth figure of over 75% during the period 2005-07 (i.e. before the 2008 global economic downturn). However, in 2010-11, the bilateral trade has registered a robust growth (+ 28% yoy) to reach € 7.21 billion.

Main items of Indian exports to Italy are ready-made garments, leather, iron ore, motor vehicles, textiles, chemicals, gems & jewelry. Main items of import from Italy are general and special purpose machinery, machine tools, metallurgical products, engineering items. Around 140 large Italian company are active in India. Some of the major Italian companies that have invested in India are FIAT Auto, Heinz Italia, FIOlA, Italcementi, Necchi Compressori, Perfetti, Lavazza, Fata Hunter Engineering, ENI, SAI India, Isagro (Asia) Agrochemicals, Piaggio, and Impreglio, SEA Deutzfahr Group, Finmeccanica SpA, Ferrero. Indian companies are present in Italy in sectors such as IT, electronics, pharmaceuticals, automobile, textile and engineering. The prominent companies operating in Italy include Tata, TCS, Wipro, Satyam Mahindra, Engineers India Limited, L&T, Mahindra & Mahindra, Ranbaxy, Raymonds, Jet Airways etc SBI has a representative office in Milan. Six Italian banks have representation in India.

The Joint Economic Commission is an institutional dialogue chaired by the respective Commerce Ministers of both countries. Under the JEC, there are Joint Working Groups in the following areas: Infrastructure, Tourism, Railways, Food Processing, Renewable Energy, Information Technology and Agriculture. The 18th session of the JEC was held in New Delhi in December 2009.

India Italy Cultural Exchange , Scientific Co-operation etc.

An Agreement for Cultural Cooperation has been in existence since 1976. Under the Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP), exchange of students to learn languages and to undergo various academic courses continues. There are 10 universities/institutions in Italy with courses on Indian history and languages including Hindi and Sanskrit.

An umbrella Agreement on S&T Co-operation exists since 1978. The Agreement envisages three-yearly action plans under which a maximum of thirty joint research projects can be undertaken. Some of the prime areas of joint research are Electronics, Biotechnology, Design Engineering Automotive Technologies, Energy, etc.

Indian Community in Italy

The Indian community in Italy is now the second largest community of Indians in Europe after the U (estimated population around 150000).

India Russia Relations

Bilateral ties with Russia are a key pillar of India's foreign policy. India views Russia as a time-tested, trustworthy and reliable strategic partner. Since the signing of the ‘Declaration on the India Russia Strategic Partnership’, in October 2000 (during the visit of then President Vladimir Putin to India), there has been a qualitative strengthening of the relationship. During the visit of President Dmitry Medvedev to India in December 2010, it was mutually decided to elevate the bilateral relationship to the level of a “Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership”.

The two countries closely cooperate in diverse spheres, including defense, civil nuclear energy, space, science and technology, hydrocarbons, trade and investment, cultural and humanitarian fields. To consolidate and advance multifaceted bilateral ties, several dialogue mechanisms, operating both at the political and official levels, have been instituted to ensure regular interaction and follow up on our cooperation activities.

India-Russia Annual Summits

The system of Annual Summit meetings between the Prime Minister of India and the President of the Russian Federation is the highest and most important mechanism for bilateral interaction, with meetings held alternately in India and Russia. Since the year 2000, eleven Summits have taken place. The 11th Summit was held in New Delhi in December 2010 between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Dimitri Medvedev and the 12th Annual Summit is to be held in December 2011 in Moscow.

India Russia Defence Relations

Indo-Russian cooperation in this sphere has transformed from a simple buyer- seller framework to a more elaborate and advanced cooperation involving joint R&D and joint production and marketing of state of the art defence technologies and systems. During the 11th Annual Summit in New Delhi the two sides signed an agreement to jointly develop the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft. The BrahMos missile system is another example of this collaboration. Several other joint projects for co-development of cutting edge technologies are being pursued.

The India-Russia Inter Governmental Commission on Military Technical Cooperation (IRIGC-MTC), co-chaired by Raksha Mantri and the Russian Defence Minister is the main institutional mechanism for interaction in this area. The 11th and the latest meeting of the IRIGC-MTC took place in Moscow on 04 October 2011.

Cooperation between the NSCS and the Russian Security Council

Regular contacts are maintained between the National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of India and the Secretary of the Russian Security Council. An institutionalized mechanism for interaction between NSCS and the Russian Security Council known as the “Joint Coordination Group” is also in operation at the Deputy
National Security Advisor level.

Foreign Office Consultations

Under the Declaration of Strategic Partnership of the year 2000, a system for regular consultations between the Foreign Offices has been instituted. Every two years, the Foreign Ministers of both sides adopt a Protocol for consultations that identifies specifics on which these Consultations are to be held. The present Protocol
covers the period 2011-2012. In addition, there are regular consultations between the Foreign Secretary and the First Deputy Foreign Minister, the next round of which is expected be held in early 2012 in New Delhi.

India Russia Nuclear Cooperation

Russia has been trusted a partner of India in the field of nuclear energy and the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project is a good example of this cooperation. Units 1&2 of the KKNP (VVER 1000 units) built with Russian collaboration are undergoing pre- commissioning testing. Negotiations for two additional NPPs at Kudankulam (Units 3&4) are presently at an advanced stage. During the visit of Prime Minister Putin to India in March 2010, an Inter Governmental Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes was signed. A “Road Map” for our future bilateral nuclear cooperation was also finalized.

Russia recognizes India’s status as a country with advanced nuclear technology and vast industrial potential in the nuclear field, and also acknowledges India’s impeccable track record in non-proliferation. Russia supports India’s candidature to all export control regimes, including the NSG. In June 2011, the two countries signed
a MoU on Russian cooperation in India’s ‘Global Centre for Nuclear Power’ initiative.


India and Russia have been collaborating in several high-technology based space projects. Under the aegis of the Inter - Governmental Agreement signed in 2004, Russia and India cooperated in the Chandrayan-1 project and are currently involved in the joint development of the Chandrayan-2 project that will place an
Indian rover-craft and a Russian lander-module on the Moon. Additionally the two countries have been cooperating on the Human Space Flight Project. On 20th April 2011, the jointly developed Indian-Russian Student Satellite “Youthsat” was successfully launched by India with its PSLV rocket. During the 11th Summit in New Delhi in December 2010 a formal agreement for provision by Russia to India of access to the high precision signals of the Russian GLONASS navigation system was signed.

Indo-Russia Economic Cooperation

Bilateral trade amounted to USD 7.46 billion in 2009 and USD 8.535 billion in 2010, registering a growth of approximately 15 percent. During the year 2010, Russian exports to India amounted to USD 6.392 billion and imports from India to Russia amounted to USD 2.142 billion. The two-way investment between the two
countries stood at approximately USD 7.8 billion. However, there is realization on both sides that there is vast potential for substantial increase in the volumes of trade and investment, given the size of our two economies. In 2009, it was decided to set a target of USD 20 billion worth of bilateral trade by 2015. Both sides also realize that considerable potential exists for cooperation in the fields of modernization, energy, pharmaceuticals, IT, steel, hydrocarbons, aerospace, agriculture, etc.

The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC-TEC), co-chaired by the External Affairs Minister on the Indian side and the Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov on the Russian side, is the main institutional mechanism supervising
cooperation in the area of economic cooperation. The IRIGC-TEC integrates inputs from six working groups on economic and trade cooperation, mines and metallurgy, energy, tourism and culture, science and technology, and IT. The 17th meeting of the IRIGC-TEC took place in Moscow on 18 November 2011.

India Russia Relations Forum on Trade and Investment (established in 2007 and co- chaired by the Commerce and Industry Minister of India and the Russian Minister for Economic Development) and the India-Russia CEO’s Council (established in February 2008 and co-chaired by Shri Mukesh Ambani, Chairman Reliance Industries Ltd. and Vladimir Yevtushenkov, CEO of SISTEMA) are the two primary mechanisms for promotion of direct business to business contacts between the two countries. In addition, mechanisms such as the India-Russia Business Council (in partnership with FICCI of India and CCI of Russia) established in 2007; the India- Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council (in partnership with Cll of India and RUIE of Russia) established in 2007; and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce (focusing on SMEs), supplement these efforts. In June 2011, the 2nd India-Russia Business Dialogue was held within the framework of the St. Petersburg Economic Forum. The latest meeting of the Indo – Russian Forum on Trade & Investment was held on 10 November 2011 and was co-chaired by Mr. Anand Sharma, Commerce & Industry Minister, and Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov.

Science and Technology

The Working Group on Science and Technology under of IRIGC-TEC, and the Integrated Long Term Programme (ILTP) are the two principle institutional mechanisms for S&T cooperation between India and Russia. The Working Group focuses on collaboration activities in mutually agreed priority areas of biotechnology, building materials, industrial realization of technologies, medical research, metrology & standardization, meteorology, oceanology and seismology. The ILTP programme focuses on collaborative research in the basic sciences and on inter-academy exchange programmes. The ILTP program was extended for another 10 year period beyond 2009, with a renewed mandate for "Innovation Led Technology Growth". The "ILTP Joint Council" reviews the functioning of the "Joint Centres of Excellence" that have been established in India and Russia.

India Russia Cultural Cooperation

There is a strong tradition of Indian studies in Russia. Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Center (JNCC) of the Embassy maintains close links with six Russian institutions:-the Institute of Philosophy, Moscow, that has a Mahatma Gandhi Chair on Indian Philosophy; the Institute of Oriental Studies, Moscow; the Institute of Asian and African Studies of the Moscow State University; the School of International Relations, St. Petersburg University; the Kazan State University; and the Far Eastern National University, Vladivostok. ICCR is setting up a Chair of Modern Indian Contemporary Studies in leading Russian Universities and Institutions. There are also about 20 Russian Institutions, including leading universities and schools, where Hindi is taught to over 1500 Russian students. There are also many Russian experts in diverse Indian languages, including Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi, Sanskrit and even Pali. Interest in Indian dance and music is widespread in Russia and yoga has become very popular. The JNCC conducts classes in yoga, dance, music and Hindi for approximately 800 students every month.

The year 2008 was celebrated as the Year of Russia in India, while 2009 was celebrated as the Year of India in Russia. As part of the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore, the JNCC has been organizing various cultural events around Russia. A mini Festival of Indian Culture in Russia was also organized in September 2011 in three cities across Russia. A Festival of Russian Cultural will be
organized in India during 2012.

India China Relations

India and China have had ancient civilizational contact. In recent times, the processof development and diversification of bilateral relations has gathered pace. The focus is on enhancing mutually beneficial cooperation while simultaneously addressing differences.

India China Political Relations

The People s Republic of China (PRC) was established on October 1, 1949, and India was the second non-communist country to recognize it. Within a few months, on April 1, 1950, India and China established diplomatic relations. The two countries also jointly expounded the Panchsheel (Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence) in 1954. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai visited India in June 1954 and Prime Minister Nehru visited China in October 1954.

The circumstances leading to the attack by China in 1962 led to a serious setback in bilateral relations. India and China restored ambassadorial relations in August 1976. Higher political level contacts were revived by the visit of the then External Affairs Minister, A.B. Vajpayee in February 1979. The Chinese Foreign Minister Huang Hua paid a return visit to India in June, 1981.

The next milestone was Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi s visit to China in December 1988. During this visit, both sides agreed to develop and expand bilateral relations in all fields. It was also agreed to establish a Joint Working Group (JWG) - to seek fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution on the boundary question - and a Joint Economic Group (JEG). From the Chinese side Premier Li Peng visited India in December 1991. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visited China in September 1993. The Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the India China Border Area was signed during this visit.

President R. Venkataraman paid a state visit to China in May 1992. This was the first
Head of State-level visit from India to China. President Jiang Zemin s state visit to India in
November 1996 was similarly the first by a PRC Head of State to India. The four agreements
signed during his visit included the one on CBMs in the Military Field along the LAC covering
adoption of concrete measures between the two militaries to enhance exchanges and to
promote cooperation and trust.

The Chinese side reacted sharply to India s nuclear tests in May 1998. During the
then External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh s visit to China in June 1999, both sides reiterated
that neither country is a threat to the other. President K.R. Narayanan visited China in May -
June 2000, marking a return to high level exchanges.

Premier Zhu Rongji visited India in January 2002. MOUs and Agreements signed
during the visit covered wide areas including tourism, water, space, science and technology

Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee visited China in June 2003 during which a Declaration
on Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation was signed. This was the first
comprehensive document on development of bilateral relations signed at the highest level
between India and China. India and China concluded a border trade protocol to add a border
crossing between Sikkim and Tibet Autonomous Region. The two Prime Ministers appointed
Special Representatives to explore from the political perspective of the overall bilateral
relationship the framework of a boundary settlement.

Premier Wen Jiabao visited India in April 2005. A Joint Statement was signed by
Premier Wen and Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. During the visit, the two sides issued a
Joint Statement establishing a Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity.
It reflects the consensus that bilateral relations transcend bilateral issues and have acquired a
global and strategic perspective. The agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles
signed during the visit represents successful conclusion of the first phase of the work of the
Special Representatives on the boundary question.

Chinese President Hu Jintao visited India in November 2006. During the visit, the two
sides issued a Joint Declaration containing a ten-pronged strategy to intensify cooperation in all
areas and to give greater content to India-China Strategic and Cooperative Partnership.
President of the Indian National Congress and Chairperson of the United Progressive
Alliance Smt. Sonia Gandhi visited China at the invitation of the General Secretary of the
Communist Party of China (CPC) President Hu Jintao on 25-29 October 2007. She met with
President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao besides other leaders of the CPC. She paid another
visit to China in August 2008 at the invitation of the Communist Party of China to witness the
opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games and met, among others, PRC Vice President Xi

Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited China on 13-15 January 2008. During the visit, he had extensive discussions with Premier Wen Jiabao and met with President Hu Jintao and NPC Chairman Wu Bangguo. A joint document entitled A Shared Vision for the 21st Century of the Republic of India and the People s Republic of China was issued during the visit, outlining common positions on a number of international and some bilateral issues. Prime Minister also addressed a high-level business event and delivered a speech at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Prime Minister visited China again in October 2008 to participate in
the 7th Asia-Europe Summit held in Beijing on 24-25 October.

The President of India paid a state-visit to China from 26-31 May, 2010. In Beijing,
she held talks with Chinese President Hu Jintao and met with NPC Chairman Wu Bangguo,

Premier Wen Jiabao and CPPCC Chairman Jia Qinglin. The Indian President, along with Chinese
Vice President Xi Jinping, attended the reception to mark the 60th anniversary of diplomatic
relations jointly organized by CPAFFC and the Embassy of India. She visited Luoyang to
inaugurate the Indian-style Buddhist Temple which was dedicated as a gift from India to the
people of China. In Shanghai, she visited the Indian pavilion and the Chinese pavilion at the
EXPO and also had a meeting with Shanghai Party Secretary, Yu Zhengsheng. A Tagore bust was
unveiled by the Indian President.

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao paid a three day official visit to India from 15-17
December 2010. During his visit, Premier Wen met with President Smt Pratibha Patil, PM Shri
Manmohan Singh, Vice President Shri Hamid Ansari, UPA Chairperson Smt Sonia Gandhi and
the Leader of Opposition Smt Sushma Swaraj. Premier Wen also interacted with children in the
Tagore International School; addressed India-China business cooperation summit; delivered a
lecture at the Indian Council of World Affairs ; and attended the closing ceremony of the Festival
of China in India along with the Indian PM. Six agreements on cultural exchange, green
technologies, media exchanges, hydrological data, and banking were signed and a Joint
Communiqué was released. During the visit, a bilateral trade target of 100 billion USD was set
to be reached by 2015. A Strategic Economic Dialogue and a CEO s Forum were established; and
2011 was declared as Year of India-China exchange . The establishment of hotline between the
Indian Prime Minister and the Chinese Premier, a mechanism of annual Foreign Ministers
Meeting and a regular high level exchange mechanism were also announced.
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited Sanya, China from 12-15 April 2011 to
attend the BRICS Leaders Meeting. Indian PM met Chinese President Hu Jintao on 13th April
2011 on the sidelines of the BRICS Leaders Meeting.

Leaders of the two countries have maintained regular contacts and have met frequently during international gatherings. In 2008, Prime Minister met President Hu Jintao at
the G-8 Summit in Hokkaido, Japan in July and on the sidelines of the ASEM Summit in Beijing in
October. Both leaders met again on the sidelines of the SCO Summit in Yekaterinberg in June
2009. Indian PM also met Premier Wen Jiabao on the sidelines of the UNGA in New York in
September 2008, on the sidelines of the EAS in Hua Hin, Thailand in October 2009 and on the
sidelines of the EAS in Hanoi, Vietnam in October 2010. They also met on the sidelines of the
Copenhagen Summit in December 2009. In 2010, Prime Minister met with Chinese President Hu
Jintao on the sidelines of the BRIC summit in Brasilia in April. EAM Shri Pranab Mukherjee
visited China to attend the India-Russia-China trilateral meeting in Oct 2007. In 2008, foreign
ministers of the three countries met in Yekaterinberg in Russia in May. Following this, EAM Shri
Pranab Mukherjee paid a successful visit to China on 4-7 June 2008. The Chinese Foreign
Minister Yang Jiechi paid a return visit --- his first as Foreign Minister --- to India on 7-9
September 2008. The foreign ministers of the two countries met in Phuket in July 2009 at the
sidelines of the ASEAN forum meeting. It was EAM Shri S.M. Krishna's first meeting with the
Chinese FM. The Trilateral Foreign Ministers' Meeting was held in Bangalore on 27th October
2009. The Chinese FM also had a separate bilateral meeting with EAM. EAM Shri S.M. Krishna
again visited China from 5-8 April 2010 on a bilateral visit. He held talks with the Chinese FM and met with Premier Wen Jiabao. During the visit, EAM launched the Festival of India in China and also attended a reception to mark the 60th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations. Later EAM visited Wuhan in Hubei province of China on 14-15 November to take part in the trilateral foreign ministers meeting. During his visit, EAM also held bilateral meeting with the Chinese FM Yang Jiechi. In addition, the two foreign ministers have had telephonic conversations on major issues of interest.

Besides exchanges at the government levels, Parliamentary and Party exchanges have also expanded. Speaker of the Lok Sabha Shivraj Patil visited China in 1993, following which NPC Chairman Qiao Shi visited India in 1995. NPC Chairman Li Peng and Speaker of the Lok Sabha Manohar Joshi paid visits to each other in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Hon'ble Speaker of the Lok Sabha Somnath Chatterjee led an Indian Parliamentary Delegation to China in July 2006 during which both sides signed an MOU to further strengthen the friendly relations and cooperation between the parliaments. To facilitate high level exchanges of Party leaders from China and State Chief Ministers from India, a special arrangement has been entered into
by the International Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Ministry of External Affairs of India since 2004. There are regular Party-to-Party exchanges between the CPC and political parties in India. Karnataka Chief Minister visited China in September 2009, BJP President visited China in January 2011 and Bihar Chief Minister visited China from 12-18 June 2011.

India and China have stepped up functional cooperation in all areas. The two foreign ministries have instituted dialogue mechanisms on issues relating to counter-terrorism, policy planning and security, besides strategic dialogue and regular consultations. There are also close cooperation in areas as diverse as water resources, judiciary, science & technology, audit, personnel, finance, labour etc. There is also a close and regular interaction between strategic and foreign policy think-tanks. Youth exchanges have also picked up momentum with annual exchange of 100 youths from each side currently ongoing. Dialogues are being initiated between pairs of India-China academic organizations.

India China Economic Relations

India and China resumed trade officially in 1978. In 1984, the two sides signed the Most Favoured Nation Agreement.

i) Bilateral Institutional Mechanisms

There are several institutional mechanisms for India s economic and commercial
engagement with China. India-China Joint Economic Group on Economic Relations and Trade,
Science and Technology (JEG) is a ministerial-level dialogue mechanism established in 1988
during the visit of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi to China. A Joint Study Group (JSG) was
set up after former Prime Minister Vajpayee s visit to China in June 2003 to examine the
potential complementarities between the two countries in expanded trade and economic
cooperation. As per its recommendation, a Joint Task Force (JTF) was set up to study the

feasibility of an India-China Regional Trading Arrangement. JTF Report was completed in
October 2007. There are also Joint Working Groups on Trade, Agriculture and energy. The two
countries also cooperate in the WTO.

ii) Bilateral Trade

The overall bilateral trade figures for 2010 released by the China Customs India-China total trade crossed the target of US$ 60 billion for 2010 and stood at US$ 61.74 billion, recording an increase of more than 52%. India s exports to China for year 2010 reached US$ 20.86 billion, a growth of more than 52% when compared to year 2009. However, India s exports to China in 2010 were only slightly more than the figure for year 2008 when our exports reached US$ 20.34 billion. India s exports in 2010 recorded an increase of only 2.5%.

China s exports to India for year 2010 reached US$ 40.88 billion, an increase of almost 41% compared to 2009.

The trade deficit for India for year 2010 stood at more than US$ 20 billion, more than US$ 15.87 billion trade deficit in year 2009.

The total trade for the first five months of 2011 (Jan-May) stood at US$ 29.36 billion, a year-on-year increase of 17.15 %. The trade deficit in this period was US$ 7.69 billion Bilateral investments

Chinese Investment in India
  • 2007- US$16 million
  • 2008- US$49.1 million (Cumulative investment till Dec 2008 was at US$91.1 million)
  • Jan-Sep, 2009- US$ 32.7 million.
Indian Investment in China

•2006 - US$52 million
•2007- US$ 34 million in 78 Projects
•2008- US$257 million in 92 projects ( turnover realized was US$88.1 million and the
cumulative committed FDI from India into China in the projects till 2008 wasUS$898
million in 426 projects)
•Jan-Sep 2009- 30 million in 57projects.
Chinese Project Contracts in India
•2007- US$4.56 billion ( turnover realized in 2007 was US$1.99 billion)
•2008- US$12.9 billion (turnover realized from these projects during 2008 was
US$4.3 billion)
•Jan-Sep 2009- US$ 6.4 billion ( Turnover realized is at US$ 4.4 billion)
•Cumulated value of Contractual Chinese investment (Projects) till June 2009 is US$
29.6 Billion. The overall turnover realized from these projects till June 2009 is about
US$11 billion

Indian Companies in China

Indian business presence in China is in a range of operations including manufacturing (pharmaceuticals, refractories, laminated tubes, auto-components, wind energy etc.), IT and IT- enabled services (including IT education, software solutions, and specific software products), trading, banking sector (major Indian banks from the public and private sector are present in China), and trade and industry associations including CII and FICCI. Air India also has an online station in China. The vehicles for the presence of Indian companies in China are joint ventures with the Chinese partners, wholly owned foreign subsidiaries or through contract
manufacturing. Some of the prominent Indian companies in China include Ranbaxy, Orchid Pharmaceuticals, Dr. Reddy Laboratories, Aurobindo Pharma, NIIT, Bharat Forge, Infosys, TCS, Satyam Computers, APTECH, Orind Refractories, Essel Packaging, Suzlon Energy, State Bank of India, Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Canara Bank, ICICI Bank, Bank of Baroda, Reliance Industries, KGK Diamonds, Sundaram Fasteners etc. The total number of Indian companies is slightly over 100.

Chinese Companies in India

Many large Chinese State-owned companies in the field of power generation, machinery
and infrastructure construction have won projects in India and most of these companies also
have a presence in India. These include Sinosteel, Shougang International, Baoshan Iron & Steel
Ltd, Sany Heavy Industry Ltd, Chongqing Lifan Industry Ltd, China Dongfang International,
SinoHydro Corporation etc. Many Chinese companies into electronics, IT and hardware
manufacturing are also based in India. These include Huawei Technologies, ZTE, TCL, Haier etc.
Major Chinese projects in India are in the field of infrastructure construction, including roads

and bridges, power projects, including EPC and also supply of heavy equipment, industrial
projects mainly in the iron and steel sector, including boilers, turbines and pelletization plants,
as well as telecommunications.

India China Cultural Relations

The broad contours of the India-China cultural cooperation was laid down in the
Agreement on Cultural Cooperation signed in May 1988, which provides for an executive
Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP) for implementation. The latest CEP signed in Dec 2010
during the visit of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao to India provides for cooperation in a gamut of
cultural fields including exchanges of visits of performing artists, officials, writers, archivists and
archaeologists, organizing cultural festivals, film festivals and exchanges in the field of mass
media, youth affairs and sports.

In April 2005, a MoU was concluded between the two Governments and India
committed to build an Indian-style Buddhist Temple in the International Garden on the west
side of the White Horse Temple in Luoyang, Henan Province. Indian President Smt. Pratibha
Patil in May 2010 inaugurated the temple during her visit to China. Earlier in February 2007, the
Xuanzang Memorial Hall was inaugurated at Nalanda (India).

A Centre for Indian Studies was inaugurated in Peking University in June 2003. The
Centre has a visiting Professor of Hindi on deputation from ICCR. Other visiting Professor chairs
were established in Shenzhen University (2008), Jinan University (2010) and Fudan University
(Shanghai) (2010).

The year 2008 marked the 70th anniversary of the Indian Medical Mission to China and
the two countries organized India-China Joint Medical Mission to commemorate the event.
During the visit of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in January 2008, the Mission was
flagged off. Ten doctors from India visited China in January 2008 and a team of Chinese doctors
went to India in the latter part of the year under a MoU between the Indian Council for Cultural
Relations (ICCR) and the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries
(CPAFFC). The second version of the same was exchanged in 2010.

The new Culture and Information Wing of the Mission began functioning from June 2008.
A Kathak dance teacher joined the Mission on ICCR deputation to hold classes for dance
students. This Wing conducts other events every month, which includes lectures,
film/documentary shows, performances, book talks, etc dealing with Indian culture and
heritage. The Wing also has an open library with around 3000 reference books on India.
A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in Beijing in December 2009 by the
Governments of India and China to organize the "Festival of India" in China and the "Festival of
China" in India in 2010. The decision to hold the two festivals was taken by the two
Governments during the visit of H.E. Mr. Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China
to India in November 2006. As part of the Festival of India in China from April to Oct 2010,

eleven Indian performing groups performed in 40 cities across China. The Festival also included
India Film Weeks in three cities, one large scale Exhibition in three cities, India s participation at
the Beijing International Book Fair 2010 as Guest of Honor country, a series of food festivals
and a Painting Exhibition by Chinese artists on Indian themes, etc.

India China Defence

Bilateral defence interaction has been growing. Peace and tranquility along the Line of
Actual Control in the border areas is being maintained by both sides in accordance with the
agreements of 1993 and 1996. During the visit of Premier Wen Jiabao to India in April 2005,
additional confidence building measures were agreed to. As part of CBMs, a few activities have
been organized along the LAC, including a small joint mountaineering expedition and sports
matches between two forces and participation in each others National Days and festivals.
Study and goodwill visits have been exchanged between the Armed Forces of both sides
over the last few years. The first ever Search and Rescue Exercises between Indian and Chinese
Navies were held off the coast of Shanghai in November 2003. The two armies have also
participated as observers in each other s exercises. Military training and academic institutes
also have regular exchanges of officers.

During the visit of Shri Pranab Mukherjee as Raksha Mantri in May-June 2006, the two
sides signed a Memorandum of Understanding for exchanges and cooperation in the field of
Defence. The MOU provides for an Annual Defence Dialogue, more frequent high-level
exchanges between the two defence ministries and armed forces and training exchanges. In
pursuance of this, the first Annual Defence Dialogue was held in Beijing in November 2007,
while the first joint training exercise between the two Armies was held in Kunming in December
2007. The second joint training exercise was conducted in India in December 2008, while the
second Annual Defence Dialogue was also held in the same month in India. The 3rd Annual
Defence Dailogue was held in Beijing on 6th January 2010. The Chief of Air Staff Air Chief
Marshall F. H. Major visited China in November 2008, while the Commander of the PLA Navy
Gen. Wu Shengli paid a visit to India at around the same time ---- making it the first time in the
history of exchanges between the two armed forces that such high-level exchanges were
conducted simultaneously. The Surya Kiran Aerobatic Team of the IAF participated in the Zhuhai
Airshow in November 2008. Two Indian ships participated in the International Fleet Review held
in Qingdao in April 2009 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the PLA Navy. COAS and
Chief of Navy Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta also paid a bilateral visit at this time. Eastern Army
Commander Gen V.K. Singh visited China in August 2009. Chinese Deputy CGS Gen Ge Zhenfeng
visited India in late 2009. An Indian Army multi-Command delegation visited China from 19-25
June 2011. Besides Beijing, the delegation also visited Urumqi and Shanghai.

Indian Community in China

The Indian community in China is an increasing one. Present estimates put the
community s strength in Mainland China at around 39000, with 5000 in and around Shanghai,

20000 in southern China (Guangzhou, Shenzhen and surrounding areas), and the remaining in
Beijing and other areas. Hong Kong has a larger Indian presence, with an estimated 12000
Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) holding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and
British National Overseas (BNO) passports, apart from passports of other countries. There are
also a further 23000 Indian Passport holders in Hong Kong. A major component of the
community in Mainland China is students. Over 6700 Indian students are enrolled in various
Chinese Universities, particularly in Chinese medical universities where they are pursuing MBBS
studies. A number of Indians, including PIOs, are professionals employed with multi-nationals,
UN and other agencies, and multilateral organizations. Many Indians are also employed with
representative offices of over 100 Indian companies in China. In Mainland China, the Indian
communities in Beijing, Shanghai and Shaoxing have set up community associations, known
respectively as the Indian Community of Beijing, Shanghai-Indian Association and the Shaoxing
Indian Business Association.

India Philippines foreign Relations & Importance

India Philippines Political Defence Relations

India and Philippines formally established diplomatic relations on 26 November, 1949, shortly after both countries gained independence, Philippines in 1946 and India in 1947. The relations between the two countries are underpinned by shared values and commonalities such as anti-colonialism, South-South cooperation and the wide use of English; Philippines prides itself as the first democratic country of Asia and India as the largest democracy. During the Cold War, the policies of the two countries were divergent. Despite this, bilateral high level visits kept the relations steady and warm. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi made a stop-over visit to Manila in 1981 on her way back from Australia. President R. Venkatraman paid a state visit to Philippines in 1991.From the Philippines Vice President Diosdado Macapagal visited India in
1961. Starting with the nineties, frequency of summit-level meetings has increased. President Ramos visited India in March 1997 followed by the visit of President Arroyo in October 2007. From India, President Abdul Kalam visited Philippines in February 2006. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited Philippines in January 2007 to attend the ASEAN and East Asia Summits. He had bilateral meeting with President Arroyo. In addition, there have been interactions at the level of Foreign Ministers and other ministers and senior
figures of the two governments.

Regular foreign policy and security dialogue meetings (from 1994 and 2004 respectively) between the two countries have been taking place, the last one was held in October 2009 (Ninth Foreign Policy Dialogue and Third Security Dialogue) in Manila. The first Joint Commission between the two countries, at the level of Foreign Ministers, took place in New Delhi on 15 March, 2011.The Philippines supported India’s candidature for the non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.

Several Indian navy ships and Indian coast guard ships have visited the Philippines in 2010 and 2011. Officers from the Philippines Armed Forces are attending courses in India and vice and versa. A National Defence College delegation visited the Philippines in May, 2011.

Potential for bilateral engagement has increased considerably in the current global and regional environment and with deepening relations between India and ASEAN in the context of India’s ‘Look East Policy’.

India Philippines Economic and Commerce Relations

The current era of globalization, characterized by liberal trade regimes followed by most countries, has positively impacted on bilateral relations. Trade has more than trebled from US $ 338.50 million in 2001-02 to US $ 1061.84 million in 2009-10. Thus, the target set for US $ 1 billion trade by 2010 in the eighth Foreign Policy dialogue has been reached. Required agreements / MoUs for facilitation of economic and commercial relations such as avoidance of double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion, agreement for promotion and protection of investments, MoU for cooperation in the field of Agriculture and related fields
have been signed. The India – Philippines Joint Working Group (JWG) on Trade and Economic Relations has been meeting regularly under the joint chairmanship of Commerce Secretary and Philippines Undersecretary for Trade and Industry. The last (Tenth) JWG Meeting was held in New Delhi on 21-22 November 2008.

The first meeting of the Joint Working Group on Agriculture took place in New Delhi in August 2008; the second JWG on the same subject is expected to take place in Manila in the near future. The first meeting of the Joint Working Group on Tourism took place in Manila in July 2008. The Philippines Airlines have started direct flights between Manila and New Delhi since March, 2011. To facilitate faster growth of tourism and people-to-people contacts, Prime Minister announced at the Hanoi India-ASEAN Summit on 30 October, 2010 the tourist visa-on-arrival facility for the citizens of the Philippines with effect from 1 January, 2011.

Economic cooperation is expected to be significantly enhanced by the operationalisation of the India - ASEAN FTA in trade-in-goods with effect from 1 June, 2011. India and ASEAN are also negotiating an FTA in services and investment which would be especially beneficial given that both economies have
a large services sector.

Secretary, Department of Trade and Industry of the Philippines, who is equated with the Union Minister of Trade and Industry, led a large delegation to India in March, 2011, to attend the First India-ASEAN Business Fair in New Delhi during the course of which he met his Indian counterpart.

India Philippines Cultural Rleations

A Cultural Exchange Agreement between the two countries was signed in 1969 under which a new CEP for the years 2011-13 was signed in New Delhi on 15 March, 2011. A number of events such as visits of dance troupes, film shows, painting exhibition have been taking place even in the absence of CEP. Most
recently, Prof. Nagasura Madale, anthropologist and consultant on special projects, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City, participated in an ICCR- sponsored conference on ‘Cultural and Historical Links between India and South- East Asia’ in Jakarta in October, 2010. At the invitation of the Sahitya Akademy,
the celebrated author and poetess, Prof. Merlie Alunan, visited India on the Anand Kumaraswamy Fellowship in September-October, 2010. Rabindranath Tagore’s famous play, ‘The Post Office’, was recently staged, after adaptation for the Philippines audience, by the Philippines Educational Theatre Association. An
Indian sitar group, led by Shri Zunain Khan, and a sarod group, led by Shri Abhijit Roychoudhury, participated in 3rd International Rondalla/Plucked String Festival organised by the Philippines National Commission for Culture and the Arts in February, 2011. A 7-member Odissi dance troupe, led by Padmashree Ranjana Gauhar, gave two recitals in Manila in July, 2011.

Philippines is also one of the beneficiaries of programmes under ITEC and Colombo Plan. In 2011-12, 35 slots each under ITEC and the Colombo Plan have been allocated to the Philippines. Utilization has ranged above 90% in the past 3 years. So far more than 800 Philippines nationals have benefited under these schemes, covering a wide range of technical courses, such as rural development; agriculture; small scale industries, banking, finance and management; quality control and marketing; planning and public administration; textiles, computer software; research and development, water resources management, etc.

The year 2009 was celebrated as the 60th year of diplomatic relations between India and Philippines. A series of activities took place during the year to commemorate the occasion. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce held a special function in Manila to recognize the people and organizations that have contributed to the development of relations between the two countries. The then President Arroyo graced the occasion and delivered a speech. A seminar on India - Philippines relations was held in the University of Philippines on 23rd September 2009. A first ever painting exhibition of modern Indian artists was
inaugurated on 5th November in Manila Metropolitan Museum. Commemorative stamps were released by India in November 2009 and by Philippines in December 2009 respectively to mark the anniversary.

India China Economic growth good for world economy - America

The United States of America wants to see Economic growth in major emerging South Asian economies like India and China over a sustained period of time as it strengthens the world economy and benefits the America too. I think one of the great strengths of the world economy, looking forward, is the prospects of a long period of very rapid growth in the major emerging economies, including China, India, Brazil, Russia, US Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner told reporters Monday. And it s very important that you see-we want to see that growth happen over a sustained period of time, he said at a White House briefing when asked about what he saw as an appropriate role of BRIC nations in the global economic situation, especially in Europe. We will benefit as a country from the realization of those very optimistic long-term growth prospects. We ll export more. We ll see more jobs created in the United States, Geithner said. And we expect to be major beneficiaries as a country of that long boom we re seeing. We want to see them contribute to global growth, and to do so in a way that s more balanced and fair, he said.

However, Geithner noted they re going to face different policy requirements than we in the United States because they re in a very different situation. But again, they re a great source of strength for the global economy, and the faster they grow in the future, the more we ll benefit as a country and the more balanced the global economy will be. America had a huge stake in helping Europe find a more effective strategy to tackle its financial crisis, Geithner said asserting that Europe had the will to combat its challenges. We have a huge stake as a country in helping them deal with those challenges. We have a huge economic stake, financial stake. So we are working very closely with them and being very supportive and as they try to craft a more effective strategy. Is there political will there? I believe there is. (Arun Kumar can be contacted at

source : htt p://www.bharatdefencekavach. com/News_1109$1$53--India--China-growth-good-for-world-economy--US-.html